在英语中人名的翻译技巧

在英语中人名的翻译技巧

翻译在我们从小到大的英语考试中是经常出现的,也许有的人都觉得这个题型没什么,或者非常有自信。下面小编就和大家分享在英语中人名的翻译技巧,希望能够帮助到大家,来欣赏一下吧。

在英语中人名的翻译技巧

名字翻译的第一条建议是,不能望文生音,遇到不熟悉的名字一定要查证读音再翻译。

如今的译者大部分都熟悉英文拼读规则,所以面对“规范的”英文单词,多半可以读个89不离十。然而不是所有单词都是“规范的”,尤其是直接从其他语言中“照抄”过来的单词和用英文“模拟发音”的单词,往往都不能直接按照英文拼读规则来发音。“拿破仑·波拿巴”的“波拿巴”写作Bonaparte,不能望文生音读作“波拿巴特”;“戴高乐”写作de Gaulle,不能望文生音读作“德盖勒”。还有一些名字看起来很熟悉,其实只是拼写相同,在不同语言中发音是有差别的,如Louis普通翻译为“路易斯”,但如果是法国名字则应当翻译为“路易”,因为法语的Louis发音与英语不同。

名字翻译的第二条建议是,名字的翻译必须遵循惯例。

如果你仔细观察就会发现,一些公认名字的中文翻译与英文原文相差不少,最典型的是国家名:Deutsch翻译为“德意志”,France翻译为“法兰西”,Europe翻译为“欧罗巴”,American翻译为“美利坚”。这些名字虽然都是音译,但当时中文的发音不同于今天的普通话,而是类似今天闽粤某地的方言(大致如此,没见到特别可靠的详细考证),从久远的年代流传下来,变成了约定俗成的译名。如今的译者如果要别出心裁,重新翻译德国、法国、欧洲、美国的名字,即便更“准确”,还是会给读者造成不少困惑。估计这样做的译者不多,但不理会约定俗成的译名,翻译时“别开天地”的情况还是时有发生。比如Hume公认翻译为“休谟”,有人却翻译为“胡姆”;Bentham公认翻译为“边泌”,有人却翻译为“贝瑟姆”;Fabian公认翻译为“费边”,有人却翻译为“法比恩”;Buick公认翻译为“别克”,有人却翻译为“布依克”。凡此种种,经常会让读者摸不着头脑——“伟大哲学家胡姆的学说”,到底是什么呢?“美国人买布依克轿车是爱国的表现”,又是为什么呢?

名字翻译的第三条建议是,人名不宜多变。

与中文人名不同,外国人名经常分好几部分,而且不必姓名一起念,经常是分开来念的。比如叶利钦的全名就是“鲍里斯·尼古拉耶维奇·叶利钦”,马克思的全名就是“卡尔·马克思”。按照中文的习惯,大家记忆“叶利钦”、“马克思”之类的名字更明确也更容易。然而在英文中,对同一个人称呼却是可能变化的,有时候用“鲍里斯”来称呼叶利钦,有时候用“卡尔”来称呼马克思。也许外国的读者更容易记忆全名,所以看到“鲍里斯”马上知道这是叶利钦,看到“卡尔”也立刻明白这是马克思,但中文读者通常没有这么敏捷,有许多人需要认真想想,甚至翻翻前文才能知道,还有些人则根本闹不清楚。所以我的建议是,如果原文中变换的称呼没有特别的含义,则译文中保持人名的一致性是不错的选择。否则,可以遵循原文变化称呼,但最好用译注的方式告知读者,如“卡尔(这里称马克思为卡尔,是表示亲昵)”。另外,外国许多名字有简称,如Jeffrey(杰弗瑞)简称为Jeff(杰夫),Catherine(凯瑟琳)简称为Cathy(凯茜),轮换出现同样会导致读者的困惑,所以在翻译时建议也按照上面的原则来处理。

名字翻译的第四条建议是,如果代词较多,应尽量具体化。

英文里的第三人称单数代词有he, she, it三种,无论是从读音还是拼写上都有很大不同,绝对不会混淆。然而中文的“他”、“她”、“它”不但形似,发音更是完全一致。结果,英文中无比清楚的句子“John might never see Mary's family member again, nor she his parents”,翻译为中文就成了“约翰可能再也见不到玛丽的家人了,她对他的父母也是如此”。如果读者能看到文字,或许还可以仔细分辨意思,若是只能仅从声音判断,几乎一定会满头雾水。这种情况下,译者应该果断将代词具体化,把“他”和“她”准确还原为指代对象——“约翰可能再也见不到玛丽的家人了,玛丽也可能不会再遇到约翰的父母”,就毫无混淆的可能了。

2020年翻译资格考试笔译二级测试题:西游记

片刻之后,一位仙童打开洞门走出来,对猴王说:“师父说有人来访,是你吗?”猴王随仙童进洞,见一位白发白须老人端坐在高台之上,两旁站立着数十位弟子。猴王急忙下跪, 连磕响头。

仙人问:“你来自何方?”“我来自花果山”猴王答道。“报上名来。”“我无父无母,亦无姓名。”“莫非你是树上长出来的?”“是石头里蹦出来的!”仙人笑到:“唤你孙悟空如何?”猴王满心欢喜地答应。从此,悟空开始努力修行,并念念不忘长生不老之术。

祖师明白他的心意,亦知悟空聪慧过人。一日,祖师在众人面前假装生气在悟空头上连敲三下,然后背着手离开,并关上房门。

众徒弟皆以为师傅发怒不敢言语。唯有悟空明白:连敲三下是指三更,把门关上暗指叫他从后门进去。于是,当晚他悄悄从半掩的后门进去,跪在祖师床前等他醒来。

A moment later, a boy opened the door, came out and asked: “Master said we have a visitor. Is that you?” Following the boy into the cave, Monkey King saw the master serene, white-haired, white-bearded and seated on a high dais. On his sides were standing tens of disciples. Monkey King hurriedly knelt down and kowtowed continually.

Master asked: “ Where are you from?” “I come from Hua Guo Shan” answered the monkey. “What is your name?” “I have no parents and no name.” “If you have no parents, were you grown on a tree?” “From a rock!”Master laughed and said : “How about I call you Sun Wukong? ” Monkey King accepted it with ecstasy. From then on, Sun worked really hard while thinking about the immortal magic.

Master knew his mind and also his extraordinary intelligence. One day, Master feigned anger and knocked on Sun’s head three times. Then he put his hands behind the back, le山 and closed the door.

While others thought Master was angry Sun knew this was telling him to see Master at three o’clock by going through the back door. So that night he went into Master’s room secretly through the unlocked back door, knelt down at his bed and waited for him to wake up.

不久,祖师醒来,问道:“你在此作甚?”悟空答:“白日里师父出的哑谜,我猜想是叫我三更时分到您这儿来,因此便来了。请师父授我不老法术吧!”祖师大悦,心想悟空果真聪明。于是开始教他长生不老的法术。悟空大喜,苦练三年,从未间断。

一日,祖师对他讲:“时至今日你已学有小成,尚需习得如何躲过命中三劫。”“哪三劫?” “你虽已习得长生不老之术, 但五百年后会遭天雷打击,若无法躲避将会丧命。”

悟空听罢惊吓不已。祖师又道: “再过五百年,你会遭遇天火, 被烧成灰烬。再过五百年你会遭遇神风, 将你吹得骨肉四散。”悟空已是胆颤心惊,忙跪地哀求。“请师父授我避难之法,此恩情,弟子永世难忘。” 祖师向来宠他,遂附耳传授口诀。悟空苦练口诀,不日便学成了七十二般变化,还能够腾云驾雾,一个筋斗十万八千里。

Soon,Master woke up and asked: “What are you doing here?” Wukong answered: “I understood your puzzle today as asking me to come at three o’clock through the back door so I came. Please teach me to become immortal!” Master was delighted that Wukong was clever enough to catch his cue so he decided to teach him immortal magic. Wukong was overjoyed and practiced hard for three years continuously.

One day, Master told him: “So far, you have done pretty well but still need to learn how to avoid three doomed disasters.”“What are they?” “Though you have mastered the immortal magic, you will be struck by a heavenly lightning in 500 years and if you can’t avoid it you will be killed.”

At this he was scared. Master continued: “In another five hundred years heavenly fire will burn you into ashes and in another five hundred years a heavenly gale will tear apart your flesh and bones .” Petrified, he dropped to his knees with shudder and begged: “Please teach me how to survive these disasters. I will always remember your kindness.” Being always fond of Wukong Master whispered some spells in his ear. He exercised the spells hard and before long mastered 72 transformations and also flying on clouds. With one somersault he could travel 108,000 li .

2020年翻译资格考试笔译二级测试题:西游记

很久很久之前有座山,叫花果山,山上有一块巨石。一日, 巨石轰然爆炸,从里面跳出一只猴子。这只猴子样貌与其他猴子并无两样,只是眼放金光。石猴一生下来就在ft中跑来跳去,与ft中鸟兽玩耍。

Long long ago, there was a mountain named Hua Guo Shan Mountain of Fruit and Flowers. On the mountain there was a large rock. One fine day, the rock exploded and a monkey jumped out. He looked no different than any other monkey except his blazing eyes. The rock monkey started jumping around and playing with the birds and beasts immediately after he was born.

一个夏天,石猴正和其他猴子在一个瀑布下面玩耍,忽听一只老猴子开口说道:“谁若能跳进水里找到水的源头,咱们就拥他为王。”众猴子一致同意,却无人敢跳。石猴见此情形就大声说到:“我去!”说着便跳进了瀑布里。没想到的是,瀑布后面无水, 却有一块石碑,上刻“水帘洞”。此外,还有一幢石屋,屋内家具皆为石头所做,应有尽有。石猴出去把其他猴子带了进来。猴子们欢呼雀跃并按照约定尊他为王。从此,猴王就带着猴子们在水帘洞过了几百年幸福的生活。

One summer day, when the rock monkey was having fun with other monkeys under a waterfall a senior monkey announced: “ Whoever can dive into the water and find its source, we’ll let him be our king.” Everyone agreed unanimously but nobody dared jump. Seeing this, the rock monkey shouted : “I will.” With these words, he leaped towards the waterfall. Surprisingly, behind the waterfall he found no water but a stone tablet with carved Chinese characters literally saying “Water Curtain Cave”. In addition, there was a stone house equipped with all kinds of stone furniture. He went back and brought in other monkeys. They cheered and according to the agreement made him their king. Thereafter, the king and his followers lived happily in the cave for hundreds of years.

一日,在一个宴席上猴王感伤地说:“现在我虽每日快活, 可是将来衰老,还是不免要被阎王爷抓去。”“是呀,”一只猴子同情地说,“你若想逃过阎王这一关,就得去寻仙拜师学会长生不老术。”猴王觉得此计甚好就说,“我这便去寻仙拜师。”

他令人做了木筏和船篙便出发了。很快,他靠岸登陆,看见几个渔民,抓住其中一人并抢了他的衣服。猴王扮成人的模样流浪了89年, 期间学会了人的语言和行为。一日,当他正爬ft时听到有人唱歌,歌者听起来逍遥自在似神仙。

他循歌声找到了歌者,恭恭敬敬地问:“请问你是神仙吗?” 那人忙回答:“我不是神仙, 不过这首歌是一位神仙教给我的。”

猴王打听了神仙的住处就继续前行,直至来到一岩洞前。只见洞门紧闭,洞口上方刻着“三星洞”三个大字。他不敢敲门,只得耐心等待。

One day, at a banquet, the king said with sadness: “ Though happy now, when I get old I will inevitably be taken away by Yan Wang Ye--Death in Chinese mythology.”“Indeed”, said a monkey sympathetically,“if you want to escape death you must learn from a god some magic which can make you immortal. ” The king thought it was a good idea and joyfully declared, “I will now go to look for a god to be my teacher.”

He had a raft and barge-pole built by the monkeys and set out. Quite soon, he landed and saw several fishermen so he stopped one of them and seized his clothes. The monkey king dressed up as a human being and traveled for about nine years when he learned to talk and act like a man. One day, when he was climbing a mountain he heard a man singing who sounded secure and carefree as if he were a god.

By following the sound of the song he found the singer and asked respectfully: “Excuse me, are you a god?” “No, I am not but a god taught me this song”, answered the man immediately.

He asked about the god’s residence and walked on until he arrived at a cave whose gate was closed. Over the gate were three big characters--San Xing Dong literally meaning Three Star Cave. He dared not knock so he waited patiently.

未经允许不得转载:其他 » 在英语中人名的翻译技巧

相关推荐