中国制度的优势从何而来?

在发展的进程当中,中国选择了一条极具特色的发展道路与区别于任何国家的政治制度。

也正是这样的特色制度赋予我们发展的动力。本集的主题聚焦于中国特色社会主义制度,一起来听听海外社会对中国制度的评价吧。

解读中国工作室推出系列短片《中国共产党与人民同行》,让我们一同走进那段风云变幻的历史,感受中国共产党百年来艰苦卓绝的奋斗历程和取得的辉煌成就!

《制度自信:实现中国发展的根本制度保障》

中国的制度不同于任何西方国家,我们的一大优势就是长远战略。瑞士欧亚思国际构想集团主席李熙德这样认为:

中国制度的优势从何而来?

我认为中国制度的一大优势是长远战略。在欧洲,我们每四年有一次选举,有时候,新政府上台会宣布一些变革举措,到了第二年,一些变革在缓慢发生,到了第三年,我们已经要开始思考下一次选举了。在第四年,一切都会停止,因为下一次选举来临了。所以,我更喜欢中国(制度所具有的)这种长远模式。拥有强有力的执政党是件好事,可以有这种长远模式,而欧洲和美国都太过注重短期。这就是所谓的盎格鲁-撒克逊模式,这是一种短期决策模式,只关注股东利益和短期回报。中国则更关注长期回报以及回馈社会,我觉得中国正坚持这一原则。

One big advantage you have in China is the long-term approach. In Europe, we have elections every four years and sometimes, you know, a new government comes in, some changes might be announced and in the second year slowly changes are happening, in the third year, we already think about next election. In the fourth year, everything is, kind of, you know, being stopped because next election is coming in. So I prefer actually the long-term approach in the Chinese fashion. It’s good to have a strong party in power. We can have this long-term approach and maybe we are too short term oriented back in Europe and back in US. It’s actually so-called Anglo-Saxon approach. It’s arms-length decision making, but the only thing about shareholder value and short-term returns. In China, we got the principle of long-term return and giving back to society. And I think the Chinese government is embracing this principle.

英国剑桥大学政治学与国际问题高级研究员马丁•雅克从历史的角度分析中国制度所具有的优越性。

中国制度的优势从何而来?

我认为中共历史上很有意义的一件事是在毛泽东过世后,国家陷于困难,邓小平作为新任领导人在思想领域做出了重大转变。如今,放眼全球,很少见到政治组织或是政治党派做出此类转变,因为他们被自己的偏见和价值观困住,对于它们而言,很难以一种不同的方式进行思考。要做出这种转变,需要很大的勇气和信心。我认为(中国的)这一转变表明,中国共产党的党组织在中国社会拥有深厚的根基,因为中国共产党要摒弃很多固化的理念,中国共产党以一种不同的方式深入到群众中。

I mean I think one of the most interesting things about Chinese Communist Party historically was after Mao died, because the country was in trouble and what happened was that De Xiaoping, as he emerges as a new leader, really made a big shift in the outlook philosophy. Now, if I look around the world, it’s very unusual to see political organizations, political parties making that kind of shift, because they get, they become captured by their own prejudices and values. And it’s very difficult for them to start thinking in different ways. To make that kind of shift, it requires a lot of courage, and it requires a lot of confidence. And I think that what that shift showed was, it was an organization with deep roots in Chinese society, because you’ve got to basically rejected a lot of, the kind of ideology you’ve had. You’ve got a reach out to the people in a different kind of way.

中国制度的优势从何而来?

中国经济之所以成功,智利驻华大使贺乔治认为主要有以下两个原因:

中国制度的优势从何而来?

第一,在市场与供求之间,在公共政策与政府角色之间找到一种适度的平衡。这是一种巧妙的平衡。许多国家往往会走极端,要么让市场自己度过一切难关,要么让国家过度保护。在我看来,中国的做法很好地实现了两大元素之间的平衡。

And one of them is to strike an adequate balance between the role of the market, the role of supply and demand on one hand and the role of public policy, the role of government on the other. It’s a very fine equilibrium. Many countries go either to one extreme to let the market do as pieces or to have the state being extremely proactive. It seems to me that what China has done is to find a nice balance between these two elements.

另一个原因源自于他来华的亲身经历。

中国制度的优势从何而来?

另一个原因是我在中国旅行时发现的。在中国的两年里,我到过大约20个省份,我的目标是足迹踏遍32个省份,但是我的时间有限。中国这种实验性的公共政策手段是在某一省份或城市先试点然后再推广到其他地区。通过这种方式,中国可以避免出台一些可能失败的政策。如果你们在全国范围内推广这种失败的政策,那么这将是一场大灾难。但是如果你们在某些地方先进行政策试点,比如开放政策就首先在(上世纪)八十年代在深圳试点。如果试点证明切实可行,那么就可以把政策推广到其他地方。邓小平先生似乎说过,这是摸着石头过河。

The other factor that I’ve been able to ascertain in my travels around China. I visited about twenty provinces in these two years that I have been here. My goal is to visit all 32 by the time. My time is up. And this incremental, experimental approach to public policy that is to try out something first in a province or in a city and then expand this to the rest of the country. So in such a way, you avoid the mistakes of launching policies that may rebound for failure. And if you launch them nationwide, it would be real disaster. But if you try them out in some place, say, is the opening was tried out in Shenzhen in the early eighties. Then if it works out, you can expand it to other places. The expression if I’m not mistaken from Mr. Deng Xiaoping is to cross the river while feeling the stones.

中国特色制度所具有的优势,为实现经济的发展提供根本保障。

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